Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on tunneling and underground excavations. Rock mechanics is a discipline of applied science. It is recognized as one of the most logical and rational engineering disciplines. It is the knowledge and understanding of the mechanical properties of rock, different methods for the study of rock-stress under some specific circumstances, various principles that express the rock mass response to load, and some coherent schemes for the application of rock-stress analysis methods to actual physical problems. Several factors have significantly contributed to the recognition of rock mechanics as a science of mining. If we talk about major causes for its recognition as a mining science, we can say that it is due to the increased development and advancement in underground mining activities. Krishnan, et al., (2000) found that underground mining operations act as one of the greatest motivating sources for the advancement in the field of rock mechanics. Rocks are used for two basic engineering purposes that include building construction and preparation of foundations. Understanding of the basic properties of rocks is very important for the professionals of the field of civil engineering because it allows the structures to be founded in an appropriate manner. In order to derive the analytical data on the physical characteristics of the rock mass, the engineers use two basic measures. These measures include field-scale measures and laboratory measures. Field-scale measures are also known as rock mass properties and they are descriptions of the rock mass’s bulk strength properties. Whereas laboratory measures of rocks are analyzed in laboratory settings and are known as rock properties. They are obtained using field site’s samples. There are two types of mining openings, which are service openings and production openings. Brady and Brown (1992, p.197) state that service openings&nbsp.are characterized by the duty life approaching the mining life of the ore body.

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